WARNING: RISK OF ACUTE BRONCHOSPASM IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE
- Acute bronchospasm has been observed in patients with asthma and COPD using AFREZZA®.
- AFREZZA® is contraindicated in patients with chronic lung disease such as asthma or COPD.
- Before initiating AFREZZA®, perform a detailed medical history, physical examination, and spirometry(FEV1) to identify potential lung disease in all patients.
Limitations of Use
- AFREZZA® is not a substitute for long-acting insulin. AFREZZA® must be used in combination with long-acting insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
- AFREZZA® is not recommended for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.
- The safety and efficacy of AFREZZA® in patients who smoke have not been established. The use of AFREZZA® is not recommended in patients who smoke or who have recently stopped smoking (less than 6 months).
AFREZZA® is contraindicated in patients:
- During episodes of hypoglycemia
- With chronic lung disease (such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]) because of the risk of acute bronchospasm
- With hypersensitivity to regular human insulin or any of the AFREZZA® excipients
Warnings and Precautions
Acute Bronchospasm: Before initiating therapy, evaluate patients with a medical history, physical examination and spirometry (FEV1) to identify potential underlying lung disease. Acute bronchospasm has been observed following AFREZZA® dosing in patients with asthma and patients with COPD. The long-term safety and efficacy of AFREZZA® in patients with chronic lung disease have not been established.
Changes in Insulin Regimen: Monitor blood glucose in all patients treated with insulin. Modify insulin regimen
and dose cautiously and only under medical supervision. Changes in insulin strength, manufacturer, type, or method of administration may result in the need for a change in insulin dose or an adjustment in concomitant oral antidiabetic treatment to help mitigate the risk of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.
Hypoglycemia: Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse reaction of insulin therapy, including AFREZZA®, and may be serious and life-threatening. Educate patients and caregivers on mitigating the risks associated with hypoglycemia. Increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring is recommended for patients at higher risk for hypoglycemia and patients who have reduced symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia.
Decline in Pulmonary Function: AFREZZA® has been shown to cause a decrease in lung function as measured by FEV1. In clinical trials lasting up to 2 years, AFREZZA® treated patients experienced a small (40 mL) but greater FEV1 decline than comparator-treated patients. Assess pulmonary function with spirometry at baseline, after the initial 6 months of therapy and annually thereafter even in the absence of pulmonary symptoms. Consider more frequent lung function assessment in patients with pulmonary symptoms, e.g., wheezing, bronchospasm, breathing difficulties, or persistent or recurring cough. If symptoms persist, discontinue AFREZZA®.
Lung Cancer: In clinical trials, 2 cases of lung cancer were reported in patients exposed to AFREZZA® while no cases were reported for the comparators. In both cases, a prior history of heavy tobacco use was identified as a risk factor for lung cancer. Two additional cases of lung cancer (squamous cell and lung blastoma) were reported in non-smokers exposed to AFREZZA® after the trial completion. These data are insufficient to determine whether AFREZZA® has an effect on lung or respiratory tract tumors. In patients with active lung cancer, a prior history of lung cancer, or in patients at risk of lung cancer, consider whether the benefits of AFREZZA® outweigh the risks.
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA): Increase the frequency of glucose monitoring and consider an alternate route of administration of insulin in patients at risk for DKA.
Hypersensitivity Reactions: Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, can occur with insulin products, including AFREZZA®. If hypersensitivity reactions occur, discontinue AFREZZA®, treat per standard of care and monitor if indicated.
Hypokalemia: Closely monitor potassium levels in patients at risk of hypokalemia and treat if indicated.
Fluid Retention and Heart Failure with Concomitant Use of Thiazolidinediones (TZDs): Fluid retention, which may lead to or exacerbate heart failure, can occur with concomitant use of TZDs and insulin. Observe these patients for signs and symptoms of heart failure. If heart failure occurs, manage according to current standards and consider TZD dose reduction or discontinuation.
The most common adverse reactions associated with AFREZZA® (2% or greater incidence) are hypoglycemia, cough, and throat pain or irritation.
Certain drugs may affect glucose metabolism, increasing the risk of hypoglycemia or decreasing the blood glucose lowering effect of AFREZZA®. Dose adjustment and increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring may be required. Co-administration of beta-blockers, clonidine, guanethidine, and reserpine with AFREZZA® may reduce the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. For full list, please see Full Prescribing Information.